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学士学位英语阅读Lesson2

2021-04-06

Lesson2

 

Directions: There are four passages in this part. Each passage is followed by five questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and marh your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single bar through the center of the letter.

 

Passage One

 

In 2011, Josh Trautwein was working as a nutrition educator in Boston. He learned that the neighborhood's only grocery store was closing for a year of repair. The families were having a tough time finding another nearby market that sold fresh produce.

 

 

Residents of Trautwein's Boston community are not alone when it comes to lacking supermarkets that sell fresh and healthy food. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 17% of Americans lived more than half a mile from a supermarket in 2017.The USDA uses the term "food deserts" to describe neighborhoods that lack access to nutritious food.

 

 

Trautwein began to imagine a new kind of market, an oasis(绿洲) for communities in need.In 2013, he teamed up with Annika Morgan to launch Fresh Truck, a school bus that functions as a grocery store on wheels . Now , with two mobile markets on the road , Fresh Truck provides communities in the Boston area with year-round access to fresh produce such as apples, carrots and eggplants at 17 locations.

 

 

But Morgan says the term "food deserts" doesn't paint a full picture. "The idea of food deserts implies that there is no food around " at all , she says , " when in reality there are a lot of barriers that prevent access." These barriers include the high cost of fresh produce and people's lack of familiarity with the produce that is available.

 

 

Getting state and local officials enthusiastic about food issues is one way to remove these barriers, says Anne Palmer. Her group campaigns for the need for policies that connect people with healthy food. "It's been fun to watch communities use food as a tool to organize,"Palmer says. "The best thing about an issue like this is that you can do something about it."

 

11. According to the passage, Trautwein's Boston neighborhood

A.had to overcome a unique problem

B.suffered from a long-term problem

C.created a new problem without knowing it

D. shared a problem with other communities

 

12.Fresh Truck serves

A.a school bus

B.a grocery store

C.a supermarket

D.a restaurant

 

13. According to Morgan, the term "food deserts"___.

A.refers to a supply of food

B.helps to identify the areas in need

C.gives an inaccurate description

D. fails to include practical solutions

 

14.Palmer's group intends

A.educate people on available fresh produce

B. push for more favorable food policies

C.provide healthy food at affordable prices

D.open new grocery stores for local communities

 

15. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage?

A. An Oasis on Wheels

B.A Nutrition War

C.Food as a Tool

D.Food Deserts or Not

 

Passage Two

 

Fungi(真菌)are so different from plants and animals that they are unique beings. They are their own kingdom. The evolution of fungi has radiated into so many different directions. The best estimate is that there are as many as 3.8 million species of fungi worldwide-though only about 144,000 have been discovered,according to this year's State of the World's Fungi report.New ones are found by searching forested areas, collecting soil samples and bringing the samples back to the lab to be studied.

 

 

Fungi have an abundance of applications that can benefit humankind in the production of food and alcohol, drugs, biofuels, and surprisingly the famous childhood toy: LEGO. Fungi could even solve world's plastic crisis, scientists say. Their nutritional value shouldn't be overlooked,either. There are about 350 species of eatable fungi. With vitamin D and other nutrients, they car reduce oxidative stress(氧化应激)linked to diseases such as cancer and heart disease.

 

 

In the wild, fungi are not able to move, so they compete against other fungi or bacteria for resources and, in doing so, produce toxic chemicals. In some cases, these chemicals have been useful to humans.

 

 

Once samples reach the laboratory, they are grown inside a dish and cut into pieces, which are then put into a bottle with a liquid of nutrients such as minerals and vitamins and a carbon source to help the fungi grow. Fungi grow by releasing proteins that speed up chemical reactions which are captured by the liquid inside the bottle, allowing them to be studied in depth.

 

 

Thousands of fungi are studied before researchers stumble upon one that could have an application. It's like a "lottery ticket", as each discovery could turn up something that can make a difference in the world, something that can make a greener industry possible, and so on.

 

16.Fungi are most likely found

A.forests

B . labs

C.plants

D.animals

 

17. According to the passage, fungi produce toxic chemicals in order to

A.have a better chance of survival

B.radiate under harsh conditions

C.reduce oxidative stress

D.stop humans from picking them

 

18. Which of the following is thoroughly studied in the lab?

A. The chemical reactions inside the bottle.

B.The minerals released by fungi.

C.The liquid inside the bottle.

D. The proteins produced by fungi.

 

16.Fungi are most likely found

A. forests

B.labs

C.plants

D.animals

 

17. According to the passage, fungi produce toxic chemicals in order to____.

A.have a better chance of survival

B.radiate under harsh conditions

C.reduce oxidative stress

D.stop humans from picking them

 

18. Which of the following is thoroughly studied in the lab?

A. The chemical reactions inside the bottle.

B. The minerals released by fungi.

C. The liquid inside the bottle.

D. The proteins produced by fungi.

 

19. The expression "stumble upon"(Para. 5) is closest in meaning to"__".

B.discover

A.select

C.estimate

D.emphasize

 

20. By a "lottery ticket", the author most probably means

A. finding fungi depends on luck

B.useful fungi can make the world better

C.studying fungi is time-consuming

D. fungi research can bring financial returns

 

Passage Three

 

A little boy in South Carolina got to celebrate his birthday twice. After only one friend showed up to his birthday party, the local fire department decided to throw him another on.

 

 

The City of Beaufort Fire Department shared the story of a party the fire department held for a local boy named Cooper, who was disappointed when only one of his classmates showed up to his6th birthday party. But after a community member gave the local fire department a call, the members were quick to come to his rescue.

 

 

"We jumped on board and said we'll do whatever we can to make sure he has a grea birthday and that more than one child shows up," Beaufort firefighter Ross Vezin says. "We made arrangements to pick him up from school along with his mom and brother , and we brought him to a bowling alley(保龄球场)along with a biker group."

 

 

The fire department was also able to bring nearly 75 other kids from school to celebrate alongside Cooper, whose mother, Nicoala Shiflet, said he has difficulty making friends because he suffers from autism(自闭症)."They had cake and presents and got to do some bowling,"Vezin continues, adding that the party came to be known as "Coopers Birthday 2.0".

 

 

From riding in a fire truck to seeing the motorcycles from the biker group and evening welcomed by so many new friends , Cooper loved his celebration . And it won't be the last time that the little boy gets to hang out with the fire department responsible for it.

 

 

" We're also going to have him up next week , " Vezin says . " We're going to give him a fire department T-shirt and a tour of our fire station."

 

21. Who did the most to make Cooper's second birthday party a great success?

A.Firefighters from Beaufort Fire Department.

B. Men from the biker group.

C. Community members.

D. Cooper's parents.

 

22. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE according to the passage?

A.About 75 kids showed up at Cooper's second birthday party.

B. Cooper's mother and brother were at his second birthday party.

C. Those joining the second birthday party did some bowling.

D. Cooper got a T-shirt from the fire department at his second birthday party.

 

23. The phrase "have him up" in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to_

A. invite him as a guest

B.meet him by chance

C.take care of him

D. make friends with him

 

24.Only one kid went to Cooper's first birthday party

A. Cooper was not good at making friends

B.other kids were busy with their classes then

C. Cooper liked to play with grown-ups

D. Cooper didn't invite his classmates

 

25. We learn from the passage that Cooper was ______ the second birthday party.

A.disappointed with

B.satisfied with

C.frightened by

D.angry about

 

Passage Four

 

It is widely acknowledged that fully autonomous vehicles, or cars and trucks that can drive themselves without a human at the controls , are coming soon . In fact , Levels 1 and 2 autonomous vehicles are already on our roads . Many companies are currently testing autonomous vehicles(AVs), and AV programs have been launched across the country by various companies in the technology and transportation industries.

 

 

AVs have the potential for tremendous safety benefits , but it will be decades until all vehicles on the road will be autonomous, and perhaps they never will. Until then, autonomous vehicles will need to share the road safely with human drivers. Further, the public remains doubtful about the safety of autonomous vehicles. Surveys have shown that fewer than 30% of people report that they would feel comfortable riding in a highly-automated vehicle, and less than a quarter would buy one as soon as it became available.

 

 

This presents a challenge to states, which are responsible for public education, driver licensing, and establishing and enforcing traffic laws. The Governors Highway Safety Association(GHSA) believes that states should play a leading role in dealing with the issues that will come from a mix of autonomous and human-driven vehicles on the roads.

 

 

GHSA's latest report on AV technology outlines issues that automated driving systems may present to states, and discusses and safety Offices should prepare for them. The report finds that most the for the for the for the for the for the share driving responsibility with humans, and are likely to do so for many decades. Moreover,there will continue to be crashes, injuries, and fatally during time in which they share the road with vehicles driven by humans.

 

26.According to Paragraph 1,autonomous     

A.will replace human drivers soon

B.will help humans in the driving process

C.have attracted various companies

D.have changed the transportation industries

 

27. What is the author's attitude towards fully autonomous vehicles?

A.Positive.

B.Objective.

C.Indifferent.

D.Negative.

 

28.According to the author,the public     

A. are quite certain about the potential benefits of AVs

B.have doubts about the safety of autonomous vehicles

C.find the ride in autonomous vehicles very comfortable

D. are eager to buy an AV once it becomes available

 

29.What does the"challenge"(Para.3)refer to?

A. The safety of autonomous vehicles.

B.Public education about autonomous driving.

C.Road conditions appropriate for autonomous driving.

D.The mix of autonomous and human-driven vehicles on the roads.

 

30. Which of the following is examined in GHSA's latest report?

A . Issues brought by automated driving

B.How to train the public in automated driving.

C . Human's role in automated driving .

D.Road accidents caused by automated driving.

 

第一篇

 

11.【解析】D细节题。根据文章第二段第一句可知,缺乏出售新鲜健康农产品的超市并不只是特劳特文所在的波士顿社区独有的问题,其他社区也有这个问题,故答案为D。选项A(必须克服一个独特的问题)与原文不符,故排除。选项B(遭受着一个长期问题)属于无中生有,文中没有提及是长期还是短期,故排除。选项C(制造了一个新问题,却对此毫不知情)错误,这个问题不是社区制造的,而且居民们知道这个问题的存在,故排除。

 

12.【解析】B细节题。根据文章第三段第二句可知,鲜货车是由一辆校车改造成的一家位于车轮上的商店,为人们提供新鲜农产品。故答案为B

 

13.【解析】C推理题。根据文章第四段可知,在摩根看来,食物沙漠一词并没有描绘出全部的情形,也就是不能准确描述新鲜农产品缺乏的情况,所以食物沙漠这个词用得不精确。故答案为C

 

14.【解析】B推理题。根据文章最后一段第二句可知,帕尔默的组织倡导制定相关的政策,使人们能够获得健康的农产品。选项B(推动政府实施更多有利的食物供应政策)符合文义,故答案为B。选项A(教育人们多了解可获得的新鲜农产品)是摩根的观点,选项C(提供人们买得起的健康食品)和选项D(在当地社区新建一些商店)文中均未提及,故排除。

 

15.【解析】A主旨题。通读全文可知,文章开头提出社区新鲜农产品缺乏的问题,接着引出鲜货车这一解决方法,随之讲述了不同的人对这一问题的看法。选项A(轮子上的绿洲)指的是鲜货车,既可指具体的鲜货车,又可指代解决问题的办法,紧扣文章主题。故答案为A。选项B(一场营养之战)文中没有提及,且“War”夸大了问题,故排除。选项C(政策工具——食物)只是在最后一段提及,作为标题则以偏概全,故排除。选项D(食物沙漠?)只是对一个名词概念的争论,不是文章主要内容,故排除。

 

第二篇

 

16.【解析】A细节题。根据文章第一段最后一句可知,新的真菌品种是在搜索林区时发现的,因此真菌最有可能在森林里被发现,故答案为A

 

17.【解析】A推理题。根据文章第三段可知,真菌为了和其他真菌或细菌争夺资源,会释放有毒化学物质,而争夺资源是为了生存,故答案为A

 

18.【解析】D细节题。根据文章倒数第二段最后一句可知,真菌通过释放加速化学反应的蛋白质来生长,这些蛋白质被瓶子里的液体吸收,人们可以对它们进行深入研究。所以被彻底研究的是真菌释放的蛋白质。故答案为D

 

19.【解析】B语义题。此处表示研究人员在一种可能有应用价值的真菌之前已经

研究了数千种真菌。研究的目的就是要找到一种有应用价值的真菌,stumble upon意为偶然发现select意为选择discover意为发现estimate意为估计emphasize意为强调。故答案为B

 

20.【解析】A推理题。根据文章最后一段可知,研究人员在偶然发现一种可能有应用价值的真菌之前已经研究了数千种真菌。这就像彩票(lottery ticket)”。可见前一句就是对“lottery ticket”的解释,所以这个彩票指的就是发现真菌全凭运气。故答案为A

 

第三篇

 

21.【解析】A细节题。根据文章第一段可知,当地消防部门决定给库珀举办第二次生日派对,第二段第一句也提到消防局为库珀举办生日派对。由此可知,消防队员们为库珀的第二次生日派对的成功举办付出得最多,故答案为A。选项B(摩托车车队队员)、选项C(社区居民)和选项D(库珀的父母)这三项虽在文章中有所体现,但都没有消防队员们付出得多,故排除。

 

22.【解析】D细节题。根据文章最后一段可知,消防队员们准备下周请库珀来做客,并且送他件消防队的T恤衫。由此可知,库珀在他的第二次生日聚会上并没有收到消防队员送的T恤衫,故答案为D。选项A(大约75个孩子参加了库珀的第二次生日派对)、选项B(库珀的妈妈和哥哥都参加了他的第二次生日派对)和选项C(那些参加库珀第二次生日派对的人打了保龄球)均与文章内容一致,故排除。

 

23.【解析】A语义题。根据文章最后一段可知,消防队员们要带着库珀参观消防站。由此可知,消防队员准备邀请库珀去消防站做客,have him up意为邀请他做客,故答案为A。选项B(偶然遇见他)、选项C(照顾他)和选项D(与他交朋友)均不符合文章语境,故排除。

 

24.【解析】A细节题。根据文章第四段第一句可知,库珀的妈妈说库珀有自闭症,因此不善于交朋友,这是导致只有一个孩子去参加他的第一次生日派对的原因,故答案为A(库珀不善于交朋友)。选项B(那时其他孩子正在上课)、选项C(库珀喜欢和成年人一起玩)和选项D(库珀没有邀请他的同学)均与文章内容不符,故排除。25.【解析】B细节题。根据文章倒数第二段第一句可知,库珀喜欢他的第二次生日派对,所以库珀对他的第二次生日派对是满意的,故答案为B(满意)。选项A(失望)、选项C(恐惧)和选项D(生气)均与文章内容不符,故排除。

 

第四篇

 

26.【解析】C细节题。根据文章第一段最后一句可知,科技和运输行业的许多公司已经在全国各地启动了自动驾驶汽车项目,说明自动驾驶汽车对许多公司有吸引力。故答案为C。选项A(自动驾驶汽车很快会取代人类司机)与文章内容不符,第一段只说了全自动驾驶汽车或者无人驾驶汽车很快会出现,但没有说会取代人类司机,故排除。选项B(自动驾驶汽车在驾驶过程中会帮助人类)和选项D(自动驾驶汽车已经改变了交通行业)第一段并未提及,故排除。

 

27.【解析】B态度题。第一段开头就提到人们对全自动驾驶车辆的普遍看法,即全自动驾驶的车辆,或者可以在没有人控制的情况下自行驾驶的汽车和卡车,很快就会出现。接着提到很多公司开始启动自动驾驶汽车项目这一情况。这都是作者对事实的客观描述,并没有发表自己主观的看法。而且后三段作者也是根据调查和报告客观地阐述自动驾驶车辆存在的问题,故答案为B

 

28.【解析】B细节题。根据文章第二段第三句可知,公众仍然对自动驾驶汽车的安全性持怀疑态度,故答案为B。第二段最后一句提到,只有不到30%的人说他们乘坐高度自动化的汽车会感到舒服,只有不到四分之一的人表示会在自动驾驶汽车一上市就买一辆,故排除选项C(公众发现乘坐自动驾驶汽车很舒服)和选项D(迫切希望在自动驾驶汽车上市后买一辆)。选项A(公众十分确定自动驾驶汽车的潜在益处)文中未提及,故排除。

 

29.【解析】D推理题。根据文章第三段可知,这给负责公共教育、驾驶执照以及制定和执行交通法的各州带来了挑战。美国州长高速公路安全协会(GHSA)认为,各州应该在处理道路上混合使用自动驾驶车辆和人工驾驶车辆的问题上发挥主要作用。由此可知,这种挑战就是应对道路上混合使用自动驾驶车辆和人为驾驶车辆所产生的问题。故答案为D

 

30.【解析】A细节题。根据文章最后一段可知,GHSA关于自动驾驶技术的最新报告概述了自动驾驶系统可能给各州带来的问题。故答案为A。选项B(在自动驾驶中怎样培训公众)和选项C(人类在自动驾驶中的角色)文中均未提及,故排除。选项D(由自动驾驶导致的交通事故)虽有提及,但并不全面,还涉及其他问题,故排除。

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