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学士学位英语阅读Lesson1

2021-04-06

Lesson 1

 

Directions: There are four passages in this part. Each passage is followed by five questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your ansicer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single bar through the center of the letter.

 

Passage One

 

Children in the United States are exposed to many influences other than that of their families.Television is the most significant of these influences, because the habit of watching television usually begins before children start attending school.

 

 

Parents are concerned about the lack of quality in television programs for children. The degree of violence in many of these shows also worries them. Studies indicate that, when children are exposed to violence, they may become aggressive or insecure. Parents are also concerned about the commercials that their children see on television. Many parents would like to see fewer commercials during programs for children. And some parents feel that these shows should not have any commercials at all because young minds are not mature enough to deal with the claims made by advertisers.

 

 

Educational television has no commercials and has programs for children that many parents approve of . The most famous of these is Sesame Street , which tries to give preschool children a head start in learning the alphabet(字母) and numbers. It also tries to teach children useful hings about the world in which they live.

 

 

Even though most parents and educators give Sesame Street and shows like it high marks for quality, some critics argue that all television, whether educational or not, is harmful to children These critics feel that the habit of watching hours of television every day turns children into bored and passive(被动的)consumers of their world rather than encouraging them to become active explorers of it.

 

11.Which of the following statements is NOT based on the passage?

A. Parents are worried about the influence from television on their children.

B.Television has much influence on children

C . Both parents and their children like watching educational television .

D.Some critics think that television is no good for children.

 

12. In what ways do children suffer from television?

A. They become the victims of social violence.

B. They spend hours watching television instead of doing school work.

C. The programs make the children lose interest in the world.

D. The programs make the children spend too much of their parents' money

 

13. Parents would not like their children to see commercials because      

A. they think that their children are not old enough to handle advertising

B.commercials teach children alphabet and numbers

C.commercials help to sell products

D. they don't like commercials

14.Educational television is widely appreciated because     

A. it does have the same commercials as others

B. it offers programs for both children and their parents

C.many parents like the programs it offers for their children

D. children can learn some school subjects before they go to school

 

15.Which of the following can best serve as the title of the passage?

A . Watching Too Much Television May Be Harmful to Young Minds

B.Television Is More Harmful than Educational

C. Television's Influence on Children

D.More Educational Television

 

Passage Two

 

Today just as technology changed the face of industry, farms have undergone an "agricultural revolution". On the farm of today, machines provide almost all the power.

 

 

One of the most important benefits will be the farm computer. A few forward-looking farmers are already using computers to help them run their farms more efficiently. The computers help hem keep more accurate records, so they can make better decisions on what crops to plant, how much livestock to buy, when to sell their products, and how much profit they can expect. Many computer companies have been developing special computer programs just for farmers. Programs are being written for hog producers, grain farmers, potato farmers, and dairy farmers. In the future, farmers will be able to purchase computer programs made to their needs. Because of the growing importance of computers on the farm, students at agricultural colleges are required to take computer classes in addition to their normal agricultural courses. There can be no doubt that farmers will rely on computers even more in the future. While the old-time farm depended on computer power, and modern farms depend on machine power, farms of the future will depend on computer power.

 

 

Another technological advance which is still in the experimental stage is the robot, a real “mechanized hired hand " that will be able to move and , in some ways , think like a human being Agricultural engineers believe that computer-aided robots will make startling changes in farming before the end of the century. Unlike farmers of the present, farmers of the future will find that many day-to-day tasks will be done for them. Scientists are now developing robots that will be able to shear sheep, drive tractors, and harvest fruit. Even complex jobs will be done by robots. For example , in order to milk their cows , farmers must first drive them into the barn , then connect them to the milking machines, watch the machines, and disconnect them when they are finished.In the future, this will all be done by robots. In addition, when the milking is completed, the robots will automatically check to make sure that the milk is pure. The complete mobilization of the farm is far in the future, but engineers expect that some robots will be used before long.

 

16. Which sentence is the main idea of the whole passage?

A. The first sentence of the first paragraph.

B. The first sentence of the second paragraph.

C . The first sentence of the third paragraph .

D. The last sentence of the second paragraph.

 

17.According to the passage,computers can not help farmers decide     

Ahow much money they can earn from their products

B.whether to plant a certain kind of crop

C.what livestock to raise

D.when to sell their products

 

18.Which of the following statements is true?

A.Farmers in the future will depend totally on computers.

B.Both computers and robots have been in use on today's farms.

C.Farmers mainly use machines on their farms at present.

D. Students at agricultural colleges must take computer classes because they can do nothing without the help of computers on today's farms.

 

19. According to the engineers,     will be done by robots in the near future.

B.milking cows

A.most of the farm work

D.all the work

C.all farm work

 

20. What is the best title for the whole passage?

A. Computer, Farmers' Best Friend B. Farmers in the Future

D.The Agricultural Revolution

C.Computers and Robots

 

Passage Three

 

An idea that started in Seattle's public library has spread throughout America and beyond.The concept is simple : help to build a sense of community in a city by getting everyone to read the same book at the same time .

 

 

In addition to encouraging reading as a pursuit(追求)to be enjoyed by all,the program allows strangers to communicate by discussing the book on the bus, as well as promoting reading as an experience to be shared in families and schools. The idea came from Seattle librarian Nancy Pearl who launched the "If All of Seattle Read the Same Book" project in 1998. Her original program used author visits, study guides and book discussion groups to bring people together with a book, but the idea has since expanded to many other American cities, and even to Hong Kong In Chicago, the mayor appeared on television to announce the choice of To Kill a Mockingbird as the first in the "One Book, One Chicago" program. As a result, reading clubs and neighborhood groups sprang up around the city. Across the US, stories emerged of parents and children reading to each other at night and strangers chatting away on the bus about the plot and characters.

 

 

The only problem arose in New York, where local readers could not decide on one book to represent the huge and diverse population. This may show that the idea works best in medium-sized cities or large towns, where a greater sense of unity can be achieved. Or it may show that New Yorkers rather missed the point, putting all their energy and passion into the choice of the book rather than discussion about a book itself.

 

 

Ultimately, as Nancy points out, the level of success is now many people read a book, but by how many people are enriched by the process or have are enriched by to someone with whom they would not otherwise have shared a word.

 

21. What is the purpose of the project launched by Nancy?

A.To invite authors to guide readers.

B.To encourage people to read and share.

C.To involve people in community service.

D.To promote the friendship between cities.

 

22. Why was it difficult for New Yorkers to carry out the project?

A. They had little interest in reading.

B. They were too busy to read a book.

C.They came from many different backgrounds.

D. They lacked support from the local government.

 

23. According to the passage, where would the project be more easily carried out?

A . In large communities with little sense of unity

B . In large cities where libraries are far from home .

C . In medium-sized cities with a diverse population .

D. In large towns where agreement can be quickly reached.

 

24. The underlined words "shared a word" in the last paragraph probably mean    

A. exchanged ideas with each other B. discussed the meaning of a word

D . used the same language

C.gained life experience

 

25. According to Nancy, the degree of success of the project is judged by    

A.the careful selection of a proper book

B.the growing popularity of the writer

C.the number of people who benefit from reading

D.the number of books that each person reads

 

Passage Four

 

Diana Jacobs thought her family had a workable plan to pay for college for her 21-year-old twin sons: a combination of savings, income, scholarships, and a modest amount of borrowing.Then her husband lost his job, and the plan fell apart.

 

 

"I have two kids in college, and I want to say ' come home', but at the same time I want to provide them with a good education," says Jacobs.

 

 

The Jacobs family did work out a solution: They asked and received more aid from the schools, and each son increased his borrowing to the maximum amount through the federal loan(贷款)program.They will each graduate with $20,000 of debt,but at least they will be able to finish school.

 

 

With unemployment rising, financial aid administrators expect to hear more families like the Jacobs. More students are applying for aid, and more families expect to need student loans. College administrators are concerned that they will not have enough aid money to go around.

 

 

At the same time, tuition(学费) continues to rise. A report from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education found that college tuition and fees increased 439% during the past 20 years, while average family income rose just 147%. Student borrowing has more than doubled in the last decade, "If we go on this way for another 25 years, we won't have an afford-able system of higher education," says Patrick M. Callan, president of the center. "The middle class families have been financing it through debt. They will send kids to college whatever it takes, even if that means a huge amount of debt."

 

 

Financial aid administrators have been having as many companies decide that student loans are not profitable enough and have stopped making them. The good news, however,is that federal loans account for about three quarters of student borrowing, and the government says that money will flow uninterrupted.

 

26. According to the first paragraph, why did the plan of Jacobs family fail?

A . The twins wasted too much money . B . The father was out of work

C.Their saving ran out.

D. The family fell apart.

 

27.How did the Jacobs manage to solve their problem?

A. They asked their kids to come home.

B.They borrowed $20,000 from the school.

C. They encouraged their twin sons to do part-time jobs.

D. They got help from the school and the federal government.

 

28. Financial aid administrators believe that     

A. more families will face the same problem as the Jacobses

B. the government will receive more letters of complaint

C.college tuition fees will double soon

D.America's unemployment will fall

 

29.What can we learn about the middle class families from the text?

A. They blamed the government for the tuition increase.

B.Their income remained steady in the last decade.

C. They will try their best to send kids to college.

D. Their debts will be paid off within 25 years.

 

30. According to the last paragraph, the government will    

A.provide most students will scholarships

B.dismiss some financial aid administrators

C.stop the companies from making student loans

D. go on providing financial support for college students

 

第一篇

 

11.【解析】C细节题。根据文章前两段可知,电视对孩子们的影响很大,父母一方面担心电视节目的质量以及其中的暴力画面对孩子们造成的不良影响,另一方面又担心电视节目中插播的广告对孩子们造成的影响。选项A(父母担心电视对孩子们产生的影响)和选项B(电视对孩子们的影响很大)与文章内容相符,故排除。文章最后一段提到,一些批评人士认为,所有的电视节目,无论是不是教育类的,都对孩子有害,选项D(一些批评人士认为电视对孩子们没有任何益处)与文章内容一致,故排除。文章第三段只提到父母同意孩子们收看教育频道,但并没有说父母和孩子们都喜欢看教育类节目,故答案为C

 

12.【解析】C推理题。文章最后一段最后一句提到,每天看数小时电视的习惯会使孩子们成为自己世界中的无聊的、被动的消费者,而不是鼓励他们去积极探索这个世界。由此可知,沉迷于电视节目可能会使孩子们对周围的世界失去兴趣,故答案为C。选项A(他们会成为社会暴力的受害者)与文章内容不符,文章第二段说的是当孩子们看到暴力画面时,他们往往会变得具有攻击性或缺乏安全感,并不是说他们会成为社会暴力的对象,故排除。选项B(他们会花数小时看电视,而不是做作业)和选项D(电视节目会使孩子们花掉父母太多的钱)文章均未提及,故排除。

 

13.【解析】A细节题。根据文章第二段最后一句可知,一些家长认为这些节目不应该有任何广告,因为孩子们还小,不够成熟,无法对广告商的言论进行判断。选项A中的not old enoughhandle分别是原文中not mature enoughdeal with的同义替换,故答案为A。选项B(广告可以教授孩子们字母和数字)与文章内容不符,根据文章第三段可知,教孩子们字母和数字的是教育类节目《芝麻街》,故排除。选项C(广告有助于销售产品)与题干所问不符,故排除。文章只是提到家长担心电视节目中的广告会对孩子产生不良影响,并没有明确地说明家长不喜欢广告,而且选项D(他们不喜欢广告)也不是家长不想让孩子看广告的原因,故排除。

 

14.【解析】C细节题。根据文章第三段可知,教育类电视频道没有广告,而且包含许多家长认可的儿童节目。由此可知,许多家长喜欢教育类电视频道为孩子们提供的节目,故答案为C。选项A(它和其他电视一样有广告)、选项B(它提供的节目的受众既包括孩子也包括父母)和选项D孩子们在上学前就可以学到一些教学科目)文章均未提及,故排除。

 

15.【解析】C主旨题。通读全文可知,文章首段开门见山,直接点明主旨,即电视对孩子的影响最大,紧接着围绕电视对孩子的影响展开论述。因此选项C(电视对孩子的影响)准确、全面地概括了文章的中心思想,故答案为C。选项A(看太多的电视可能对年轻人有害)是一些批评人士的观点,并不是文章的主旨,故排除。选项B(电视的危害性大于教育性)和选项D(多一些教育类节目)文章均未提及,故排除。

 

第二篇

 

16.【解析】A主旨题。通读全文可知,文章开篇点题,提出如今的农场经历了一场“农业革命”。紧接着围绕这场“农业革命”进行了详细的论述,在接下来两段中分别对计算机和机器人在农场中的运用情况和前景进行了分析。故答案为A

 

17.【解析】C细节题。根据文章第二段第三句可知,计算机可以帮助农民更准确地记录,以便他们可以更好地决定种植什么作物,购买多少牲畜,何时出售他们的产品,有望获得多少利润。选项A(他们可以从产品中获得多少收益)、选项B(是否种植某一种作物)和选项D(何时出售他们的产品)文章均有提及,故排除。选项C(饲养什么牲畜)文章未提及,故答案为C

 

18.【解析】C细节题。文章第二段最后一句提到,旧农场依赖马的力量,现代农场依赖机器的力量,但未来的农场将依赖计算机的力量。由此可知,目前农民在农场中主要使用的是机器,故答案为C。选项A(未来农民将完全依赖计算机)与文章内容不符,根据文章最后一段可知,除了机器、计算机,机器人也将投入使用,故排除。选项B(在如今的农场中,计算机和机器人都已投入使用)与文章内容不符,最后一段说的是机器人将在不久以后投入使用,故排除。文章第二段提到,由于计算机在农场的重要性日益增加,农业学院的学生除了常规的农业课程外,还必须上计算机课。因此选项D(农业大学的学生必须上计算机课,因为在当今的农场中如果没有计算机他们什么也做不了)与文章内容不符,故排除。

 

19.【解析】A细节题。根据文章第三段第三句和最后一句可知,未来的农民会发现许多日常工作将由机器人来做,工程师预计不久一些机器人将投入使用。由此可知,不久的将来,大多数农场工作将由机器人来做,故答案为A。选项B(挤牛奶)、选项C(所有的农场工作)和选项D(所有的工作)均与文义不符,故排除。

 

20.【解析】D主旨题。文章主要是围绕如今的农场经历的“农业革命”展开论述的,阐述了这场“革命”的主要内容,并分别对计算机和机器人在农场中的运用情况和前景进行了分析,故答案为D。选项A(计算机:农民的好朋友)和选项B(未来的农民)过于片面,不能概括全文的主要内容故排除。选项C(计算机和机器人)的范围过于笼统,没有准确地定位在农场,故排除。

 

第三篇

 

21.【解析】B细节题。文章第二段开头提到,南希发起的这个项目,除了鼓励人们将阅读作为一种追求来享受,还允许陌生人在公共汽车上通过讨论这本书来交流,并促进人们将阅读作为一种经历在家里和学校分享。由此可知,南希发起这个项目的目的是鼓励人们阅读和分享,故答案为B。选项A(邀请作者对读者进行指导)、选项C(让人们参与社区服务)和选项D(增进城市之间的友谊)文章均未提及,故排除。

 

22.【解析】C推理题。文章第四段第一句提到,唯一的问题出现在纽约市,因为当地读者无法决定用哪一本书来代表他们庞大而多样化的人口。由此可知,由于纽约市的人口来自不同的背景,因此在实施阅读计划时,选择一本合适的书成为一个大难题,故答案为C。选项A(他们对阅读几乎没有兴趣)、选项B(他们太忙了,没有时间阅读)和选项D(他们缺少当地政府的支持)文章均未提及,故排除。

 

23.【解析】D推理题。文章第四段第二句提到,阅读计划这一想法在中等城市或大城镇效果最好,因为那里可以实现更大的团结感。由此可知,在更容易达成一致的大城市,阅读计划更容易实施,故答案为D。选项A(在几乎没有团结感的大社区)和选项B(在图书馆离家很远的大城市)文章均未提及,故排除。根据本段第一句可知,作为一个人口多样化的城市,纽约市在实施该计划的时候遇到了困难。因此,选项C(在人口多样化的中等城市)与文章内容不符,故排除。

 

24.【解析】A语义题。根据文章前两段可知,该阅读计划的目的是鼓励人们进行阅读并互相交流和分享自己的想法。shared a word与前面的speaking to someone意思相近,结合语境,其意思应该是“与他人交流想法”,故答案为A。选项(讨论一个词语的意思)、选项C(获得人生经验)和选项D(使用同一种语言)均与文义不符,故排除。

 

25.【解析】C细节题。文章最后一段提到,最终,正如南希所指出的,该计划的成功程度不是由有多少人读了一本书来衡量的,而是有多少人在这个过程中感到充实,或者喜欢上和他们本来不可能交流想法的人分享自己的感受。由此可知,该计划的成功程度是由有多少人在阅读过程中有收获决定的,故答案为C。选项A(慎重选择一本合适的书)、选项B(作者越来越受欢迎)和选项D(每个人阅读的数量)均与文章内容不符,故排除。

 

第四篇

 

26.【解析】B细节题。根据第一段可知,戴安娜·雅格布斯的家庭本来有一个可行的计划可以支付两个双胞胎儿子的大学费用,可由于丈夫失业计划瓦解了,故答案为B。选项A(双胞胎浪费了太多钱)、选项C(他们的存款用完了)和选项D(他们的家庭破裂了)文章均未提及,故排除。

 

27.【解析】D推理题。文章第三段提到,雅格布斯一家确实想出了一个解决办法:他们请求学校给予帮助,并且也确实从学校得到了很多帮助,两个儿子也都通过联邦贷款计划将自己的借款增加到最大数额。由此可知,他们通过从学校和联邦政府获得帮助解决了他们面临的问题,故答案为D。选项A(他们要求孩子们回家)与第二段提到的他们想让孩子们回家,但同时也想为他们提供良好的教育不符,故排除。选项B(他们从学校借了两万美元)与文章内容不符,文章说的是孩子们毕业时每人将有两万美元的债务,故排除。选项C(他们鼓励双胞胎儿子做兼职)文章未提及,故排除。

 

28.【解析】A细节题。文章第四段第一句提到,随着失业率的上升,财政援助管理人员预计会有更多像雅格布斯这样的家庭。由此可知,财政援助管理人员认为会有更多的家庭面临和雅格布斯一家同样的问题,故答案为A。选项B(政府将收到更多的投诉信)、选项C(大学的学费不久将会翻倍)和选项D(美国的失业率将会下降)文章均未提及,故排除。

 

29.【解析】C细节题。文章第五段最后提到,中产阶级家庭一直通过借款来融资,他们会不惜一切代价送孩子上大学,即使这意味着巨额债务。由此可知,中产阶级家庭会尽最大的努力送孩子上大学,故答案为C。选项A(他们抱怨政府提高学费)、选项B(他们的收入在过去的10年一直很稳定)和选项D(他们的债务在25年内将还清)均与文章内容不符,故排除。

 

30.【解析】D推理题。文章最后一段提到,由于许多公司认为学生贷款利润不高并已停止发放,财政援助管理人员一直处于困难时期。然而,好消息是联邦贷款占学生借款的四分之三左右,而且政府表示资金将不间断地流动。由此可知,政府将继续承担对大学生的资金援助,故答案为D。选项A(为大多数学生提供奖学金)、选项B(辞退一些财政援助管理人员)和选项C(阻止公司向学生提供贷款)文章均未提及,故排除。

 

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